Assoc. Prof. Dr Wan Himratul Aznita Wan Harun received her PhD in Oral Molecular Microbiology in 2004 from the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. She is currently an Associate Professor in The Department of Oral Biology & Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur. Her primary field is microbiology with research emphasis of virulence of oral microorganisms specifically the oral candida. Her research interest also covers the effects of medicinal plant extracts on the biological properties, adherence and molecular analysis of Candida species.
Biofilm formation is more important than planktonic growth because this mode of growth is associated with oral Candida infections and their inherent resistance to antifungal chemotherapy. Combination of antifungal drugs from different classes and mode of action are being studied in order to determine a better strategy in combating antifungal resistance. The molecular mechanisms behind the resistance in Candida spp are not yet understood. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the expression of selected genes (MP65 and ERG3) responsible for Candida planktonic and biofilm resistance under the exposure to the combination of tunicamycin and amphotericin B. The expression of possible target genes (MP65 and ERG3) in planktonic and biofilms of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis was analyzed by reverse transcription- PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of TM + AmB. In this experiment, we found that the expression level of genes encoding enzymes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis (ERG3) and gene encodes for putative β-glucanase mannoprotein (MP65) in C. albicans planktonic and biofilm were down-regulated after 1h exposure to the TM + AmB, but the fold changes were not particularly high in biofilm form. However, the expression level of ERG3 and MP65 genes were highly down-regulated in both planktonic and biofilm of C. dubliniensis. In vitro analysis has shown that the combination of these antifungals, showed a strong activity against C. dubliniensis in planktonic and biofilm, but have moderate antifungal activity against cells of C. albicans in biofilm as the transcription levels of the ERG3 and MP65 genes were not highly down-regulated.
Ligia Vaida has completed her PhD in 2008 from “Iuliu Hatieganu” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. She is orthodontist and works in her private praxis in Oradea and as Assistant Professor at the University of Oradea, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy. She has published more than 100 papers including articles “in extenso” or abstracts in reputed journals or as scientific communications in different congresses. She has also been serving as an editorial board member of two journals indexed in the International Data Base.
Nowadays the people around the world pay special attention to dento-facial aesthetics. To optimize aesthetics frontal area of the dento-alveolar arches it is important to obtain a harmonious and symmetric gingival contour by eliminating the gummy smile and correcting the placement of smile line. In this paper we reviewed some morphological parameters defining the smile, including the number of millimeters of gingival mucosa exposed during the smile at the level of central incisors. We took into consideration a number of 900 orthodontic patients aged between 9 and 25 years. We considered, as a “gummy smile that requires therapeutic correction”, the situations where the gingival tissue visible in smile has a size of at least 3mm at the level of maxillary central incisors. The patients who inherited the gummy smile or acquired defects gum (e.g. gingival hyperplasia, gingival elephantiasis) and gingival inflammatory processes were excluded from the sample. From the 900 patients, 158 of them had gingival smile (17.55%), most of them being diagnosed with Class II/2 malocclusion. From those 158 patients with gingival smile, only 67 patients (or caregivers in case of children), representing 42.4%, included in their presentation reasons the presence of gummy smile. In other cases the doctor was the one who informed the patient about the gummy smile appearance and about the fact that it can be ameliorated, in all cases patients requiring the correction in their following therapeutic treatments. We focus on the possibility of gummy smile amelioration after orthodontic treatment.